Category Archives: cancer

Melanoma Alphabet

The majority of cases of melanoma are treatable when diagnosed early. The seriousness of a particular melanoma relates to its thickness, so if the melanoma can be diagnosed when it is thin and less risky, simple surgical removal often yields an extremely high cure rate.

Atypical appearing mole

More than two decades ago, a general guideline was developed to help people recognize skin lesions that could be melanoma. The so-called “ABCD” guideline was a simple way of identifying key factors of moles or other lesions that required prompt attention to make sure that melanoma was not developing or already present. Ultimately, melanoma can only be diagnosed by skin biopsy, but whether through self skin exam, an annual skin exam by your physician, or if you have a lesion that is concerning, it is important to know whether the growth truly requires additional attention.

Hopefully, the ABCD paradigm, which some expand to include the E for “evolving”, and I expand to include the letter S, for suspicious, is well known. Here is a brief reminder but it should be remembered that this just represents an aid to recognition and should not replace any specific concerns that you have about particular skin lesions.

A–asymmetry. If you look at the lesion and fold it in half in your mind’s eye the two sides do not match. Normal moles typically grow in a somewhat circular and therefore symmetric fashion. Abnormal moles and melanoma, because of factors related to their biology of growth, may develop an asymmetric appearance. Continue Reading »

Dermatologists recommend an annual total body skin examination as a means to identify skin cancer and melanoma at its earliest most treatble stage. While melanoma and skin cancer can be dangerous, the good news is that careful monitoring of your skin allows you to become better aware of the moles and skin growths so that abnormal lesions can be identified and changes in moles will be more apparent. While the majority of skin cancers are probably identified by the patient or partner (female spouses and partners are best at this in my opinion), there are often lesions that are not of concern to the patient but identified by the doctor as suspicious and therefore in need of biopsy or close monitoring.

The Total Body Skin Exam

When we say “TOTAL” we mean “TOTAL”. The proper exam is performed in a well lighted room with the aid of a magnifier if necessary. The doctor or other specially trained care provider should be systematic and study the skin from the scalp to the feet, including often ignored areas like the palms, soles and in between the toes. One patient told me his dermatologist did not want to examine his scalp because “he had too much hair”. Most balding men would view that as a good problem to have but its not an excuse to perform an inadequate exam. Scalp should be examined carefully ( in many people the scalp has received much sun over the years). Hair should be parted with fingers, a comb or even a hair dryer set on cool. Many people are surprised by how fast some doctors perform a full skin exam. In fact, skin examination is all about pattern recognition and at a first pass very concerning lesions do jump out. Closer exam of these lesions is then necessary. The length of the exam is less important than its completeness and your sense that it has been thorough. If you are wearing naill polish, you must return to have the doctor examine your nail area or make sure you do so yourself when the polish is removed. There has been a spate of new products and machines  that claim to systematically scan for moles and skin cancer. Most of these are just sophisticated digital imaging methods that serve as an aid to identify lesions of concern but are not in themselves diagnostic tools. For now the best computer for melanoma identification resides between the two ears of the dermatologist.

In addition to the annual full skin exam, people at high risk for skin cancer:

1. people with fair hair, fair skin or blue, grey or green eyes

2. people with a family history of skin cancer or melanoma

3. people who have had blistering sunburns in childhood

should all be seen a second time each year for examination of the high risk sun exposed areas. After that follow the recommendation of yoru dermatologist for a follow-up plan unique to your situation

Moles of concern include those that are greater than 6-7 mm (the size of a pencil erase); asymmetric (when folded over in your mind’s eye the halves don’t match); change in color including presence of black, red or white colors; irregular rather than smooth rounded borders; moles that itch or bleed and, perhaps most important, moles that you are concerned about. Very often patients will point out lesions that bother them thouh they can’t say why. I teach my residents that those must be biopsied. Patients have  a sixth sense about their body and this must be respected by the doctor.

May Is Melanoma Awareness Month

The month of May has been designated MELANOMA AWARENESS MONTH. While the yearly calendar is packed full with days, weeks and months dedicated to many important medical and social causes, Melanoma Awareness Month is especially important and directly relates to activities we all participate in when the sun rises higher in the sky and the power of damaging ultraviolet radiation is more intense. More intense UV rays means more risk of skin damage from the cancer-causing mutations in the skin. Interestingly, ultraviolet radiation causes “fingerprint” mutations in certain cancer genes. The mutations are unique to the sun and so it is possible to identify in damaged skin, what mutations were accumulated while lying, working or playing in the sun unprotected. While not all melanomas are caused by the sun ( it is estimated that 40% of melanomas may not  be sun-related) the role of the sun in melanoma is well-established and that critical fact creates an opportunity for strategic protection. There are so many diseases and ailments for which the cause is not known. In the case of melanoma and skin cancer, we not only know the cause ( UV radiation) but we know how to minimize it, thus providing one true approach to preventative health. A great public service advertisement was recently posted on

CA Gov. Jerry Brown has Mohs Surgery

Today the Los Angeles Times reports that Governor Jerry Brown, underwent surgery for a skin cancer of the nose.   Basal cell cancer, the lesion that was removed from his nose using a technique called Mohs surgery, is the most common form of skin cancer in humans. Continue Reading »